Summary of Cubism taken from Tate Modern UK

Cubism was a new way of representing reality in art invented by Picasso and Braque from 1907–8. A third core Cubist was Juan Gris. It is generally agreed that Cubism began with Picasso’s famous Demoiselles D'Avignon of 1907. The name ‘Cubism’ refers to an observation by the critic Louis Vauxcelles that some of Braque's paintings exhibited in Paris in 1908 showed everything reduced to 'geometric outlines, to cubes'. Cubism was partly influenced by the late work of Cézanne in which things were painted from slightly different points of view. Picasso was also influenced by highly stylized, non-naturalistic African tribal masks. In their Cubist paintings Braque and Picasso began to bring different views of the object together on the picture surface. 'A head', said Picasso, 'is a matter of eyes, nose, mouth, which can be distributed in any way you like. The head remains a head.' In practice however, the object became increasingly fragmented and the paintings became increasingly abstract. To make up for this, words were used, and then real elements, such as newspapers, to represent themselves. This was Cubist collage, which soon became three dimensions in Cubist constructions. This was the start of one of the most important ideas in modern art, that you can use real things directly in art. Cubism was the starting point for abstract art including Constructivism and Neo-Plasticism. Cubism opened up almost infinite new possibilities for the treatment of reality in art.

Georges Braque
Robert Delaunay
Fernand Leger

Online Picasso project
Picasso and Cubism
Cubism: the big picture
Picasso and images

Robert Delaunay, French Cubist painter
Modern American Art
Chuck Close
Willem de Kooning
Helen Frankenthaler
Jasper Johns
Jackson Pollock
James Rosenquist
Mark Rothko
Frank Stella
Andy Warhol
Fernand Leger
from MoMA teacher resources